What is an elevator?
The elevator is a vehicle used to transport loads and people vertically or horizontally. With the construction of higher and deeper structures, the need for people and loads to reach the upper and lower floors has made elevators compulsory.
In the 19th century, some mines and factories used freight elevators to transport coal and necessary materials. The first elevators that did not endanger people’s life safety were built in the mid-19th century. Until this period, buildings in cities were at most five or six floors high enough for people to climb up the stairs.
These safe elevators were powered by steam power.
In these elevators, the steam engine rotates a drum, and the rope that pulled the elevator cabin was wound on this drum, just like fishing rods. Elisha Graves Otis invented the elevator.
The rope-wound drum system used in old elevators is rotated by an electric motor instead of a steam engine, and some elevators are still applied today. But most of the electric elevators are now of the pull type. In these elevators, the elevator cabin is attached to one end of the suspension ropes and a counterweight is attached to the other end, which balances the weight of the cabin. Each of the suspension ropes fits into a separate groove on a pulley or pulley located at the top of the hoistway. Powered by an electric motor, this pulley moves the ropes as it spins. Thus, while the elevator travels in one direction, the counterweight moves in the opposite direction.
Today’s elevators are equipped with many safety devices that prevent the car from going up and down too quickly and from going up and down the top or bottom floor level and crossing the top or bottom floor level. Even if these devices do not work, it is impossible for the elevator to pass through the top floor and reach the top devices. Because when the cabin reaches the top floor, the counterweight sits on the buffers at the bottom of the well, so that the ropes are loosened and cannot pull the cabin higher.
Some of the modern elevators are also of the reciprocating-electric type. These work just like old hydraulic elevators and use oil instead of water to prevent rusting and freezing. Oil pumped into the cylinder by an electric pump is discharged to electric valves. These elevators are used in low-rise structures, especially in factories for lifting heavy loads, and in the riser platform of aircraft carriers and automobile wash-lubrication stations.